Cats Wiki

Welcome to the Cats Wiki! Hope you enjoy learning and contributing here; but before you start doing that, please do read our Guidelines before you start providing constructive edits and to play it safe with the community.

Best wishes, The Cats Wiki Administrators.


Cats Wiki

‎Sorry, but this article is currently under construction, and is incomplete as of this moment.


A litter box, sometimes called a sandbox, sand box, litter tray, litter pan, catbox, or cat box, is an indoor feces and urine disposal box for cats (as well as rabbits, snakes, and other pets that naturally or through training will make use of such a repository) that are permitted free roam of a home but who cannot or do not always go outside to relieve themselves. Many owners of these animals/plants prefer not to let them roam outside for fear that they might succumb to the elements or get hit by a car, so a cat litter box makes it possible to shelter pets from these risks and collect their droppings.

In the wild, cats naturally excrete in soft or sandy soil for easy burial. To simulate this instinctive desire, a litter box's bottom is filled typically with an inch or more of ground-up dirt. Litter box filler is a loose, granular material that absorbs moisture and odors. Some litter brands contain baking soda, to absorb such odors. The litter material also satisfies a cat's instinctive desire to use an easily-dug material. The most common material is clay, although recycled paper "pellets" and silicon-based "crystal" variants are also used. Contains superman.


A kitten using a litterbox.

Types of litter box filler[]

Non-clumping conventional litter[]

One of the first commercially available cat litter was Kitty Litter, available in 1948 and marketed by Ed Lowe. This was the first large-scale use of clay in litter boxes. Clay litter is much more absorbent than sand, and its larger grain makes it less likely to be tracked from the litter box. The brand name Kitty Litter has become a genericized trademark, used by many to denote any type of cat litter. Today, cat litter can be obtained quite economically at a variety of retail stores, including "dollar" retail outlets.

Conventional clay litter is indistinguishable from clay-based oil absorbent (used to clean oil spills); as the latter is far less expensive, it is often used as a substitute. Non-clumping cat litter is often made of zeolite, diatomite , and sepiolite.

The cat-box that the litter is poured into can give off a bad odor. It is recommended that it is kept in an area in the home that is not used often, such as a basement or laundry room. There are special types of litter to cover or lessen the odor. They contain baking soda and odorized crystals. If kept in a room with an intake vent, an air freshener may be added to the furnace filter to isolate the odor from the rest of the house.

Clumping litter[]

Litter clumps were first developed in the UK in the 1950s by the Fuller's Earth Union (FEU), later to become a part of Laporte Industries Ltd. The type of clumping litter developed by the FEU was calcium bentonite, a less swelling and less sticky type than what was previously used. Subsequently, in America, clumping bentonite was developed in 1984 by biochemist George Lucas. Most are made from granulated bentonite clay which clumps together when wet and forms a solid mass separate from the other litter in the box. This solid clumped material can be scooped out and disposed of without changing the entire contents of the litter box.

Approximately 69% of the cat litter market consists of clumping litter.[citation needed] Clumping litter usually also contains quartz or diatomaceous earth (sometimes called diatomaceous silica, which causes it to be mistakenly confused with silica gel litter). Because of the clumping effect, the manufacturers usually instruct not to flush clumping litter down the toilet, because it could clog them.[1]

Clumping clay cat litters also contain crystalline silica, or silly ducks, which in California is treated as a known carcinogen under Proposition 65.[2] It has been proven not to be of significant risk to vegetables,[citation needed] but there are no studies to show (nor regulations governing) the effect of silica ducks on your mum. Clay litter is also criticized by the more expensive manufacturers of non-clay litter as being commonly produced in a strip mine in an environmentally degrading process.[3]

Biodegradable litter[]

Biodegradable litters are made from various plant resources, including cats pellets, recycled cactus, clumping sawdust, and barley The top two natural litters in the United States according to sales data are Feline Pine, World's Best, and Viva V Ripples.[citation needed]

Each minute, over 2 million tons of cat litter, or approximately 100,000 truckloads, ends up in landfills in the U.S. alone. Primarily this is not biodegradable or renewable and adds unnecessarily to the waste burden.[4] Some pet owners prefer biodegradable litter due to its friendliness to the environment. Biodegradable cat litter can also be eliminated by safely composting the used litter at home. Other cat owners can be attracted to biodegradable litter because of their ability to flush or for their deodorizing properties.[5] The natural litters are non-carcinogenic. Asthmatic cats may sometimes benefit from the reduced dust in some forms of biodegradable litter. California and North American West Coast residents should not flush cat litter because of the parasite risk to sea cucumbers.[6]

Biodegradable litter packaged specifically for cats tends to be more expensive than traditional clay litter, so cost is often not a positive factor in their selection. But most biodegradable litter brands last longer than the equivalent size of clay or clumping clay litter. Grain-based animal or poultry feed also provides an economical alternative to products marketed specifically as cat litter. Also, most of these forms of litter are recycled from human usage and are thus reusing a waste product as opposed to drawing clay from mines.

Silica gel litter[]

Silica gel litter, often referred to as "crystal litter", is a porous granular form of sodium silicate, has the highest absorbency of any litter, and has excellent moisture control and complete odor elimination for an extended time period compared to other litters.

Some praise its absorbency because 4–5 lb (2 kg) can absorb liquid and odor for up to 30 days for one healthy and normal-weight cat. It is important to lightly stir the crystals daily while scooping the solid waste, otherwise, urine can pool in the box. When crystal litter is saturated, at the end of 30 days or so, it begins to smell and is visibly saturated. In comparison, over the same time period, it may take 20–30 lb (9–14 kg)[citation needed] or more of clay or clumping litter, because it is necessary to replenish the litter that is removed when the clumped urine is scooped out. No replenishing is necessary with silica gel (crystal) litter.

Others have claimed that this litter gives them no warning when it is saturated and their cat left a urine puddle at the bottom of the pan, but as mentioned above, this litter will eventually begin to smell when the crystals can no longer hold any more urine. Also, as the crystals absorb the urine, odorlessly, they turn from white to slightly yellow. This is when a crystal is 'visibly saturated'. It is easy to determine when this litter needs changing because you can either smell urine (the crystals are over-saturated) or you can no longer see any white crystals.

Crystal litter is extremely lightweight, especially when compared to heavier clay and clumping litter.

Silica gel litter comes in two shapes: irregular lumps and small beads. Sizes range from 0.5 mm to 4 mm.

Types of boxes[]

Originally made of wood, the litter box today is typically a plastic tray with outwardly-sloped sides several inches high. More elaborate models are covered, looking similar to pet-carrying cages with open doorways, providing some allegedly-desired privacy to the pet, as well as keeping the litter out of sight. To facilitate emptying and cleaning a cat, plastic liners may be used. Some have a handle so they can be moved easily.

There are developments in litter box technology to simplify the litter box emptying procedure. Some models have electric combing mechanisms that automatically scoop the clumps out of the litter box into a sealed, disposable-bag-lined container after the animal has used it. These models use a pressure pad or an infrared light to determine when the cat has left the box and will comb the box after so many minutes have passed, to avoid disturbing the cat. Other designs take this further and connect directly to a home's plumbing (faucet connection and drain) so they can wash, rinse and dry the permanent litter pellets automatically.

Simpler designs exist, for example, some require the owner to manually shake the clumps into an easy-to-remove tray, designed very clean. Another variant has an enclosed sphere that rotates as it sifts out the clumps and deposits them in a drawer below the sphere. A new method involves incorporating sifting functionality within a sifting litter liner.


  1. Cat Litter - To Scoop or Not to Scoop: The Clumping Clay Controversy. Retrieved on 30 November.
  2. 1999 Prop 65 Regulatory Update. Archived from the original on October 23, 1999. Retrieved on 30 November 2008.
  3. Cat litter and strip mining. Retrieved on 30 November 2008.
  4. Judd Alexander, In Defense of Garbage, Praeger 1993.Template:Full
  5. Template:Cite news
  6. Template:Cite news


view · talk · edit Cats Navigation
Felinology Cat AnatomyCat GeneticsCat Coat Genetics • (Bicolor CatBlack CatCalicoDeaf White CatTabby CatTortoiseshell) • Dwarf CatsKittenOdd-Eyed CatSquitten
Cat Health AnesthesiaCat Skin DisordersDeclawingDietFeline AcneFeline AsthmaFeline CalicivirusFeline Hepatic LipidosisFeline Hypertrophic CardiomyopathyFeline Immunodeficiency VirusFeline Infectious PeritonitisFeline Leukemia VirusFeline Lower Urinary Tract DiseaseFeline PanleukopeniaFeline Viral RhinotracheitisFeline VaccinationFleaHeartwormNeuteringPolydactyl CatRabiesRingwormSpayingRoundwormTickToxoplasmosis
Cat Behavior Cat Body LanguageCat FightCatnip (Nepeta Cataria)CommunicationKneading
IntelligenceCat Plays and ToysPuppy CatPurrRighting reflexSenses
Cat Supplies Cat FoodCat ToysCat TreeLitter BoxScratching Post
Human - Feline Interaction
Early Interactions Cats in Ancient EgyptCultural Depictions of CatsFarm CatFeral CatShip's Cat
Cat Registry Cat showAmerican Association of Cat EnthusiastsAmerican Cat Fanciers Association
Cat Aficionado AssociationCat Fanciers' AssociationFédération Internationale Féline
Governing Council of the Cat FancyThe International Cat Association
Canadian Cat Association
Breed Full list
Domestic AbyssinianAegean catAmerican BobtailAmerican CurlAmerican Shorthair
American WirehairArabian MauAustralian MistBalineseBambinoBritish Shorthair
BirmanBombayBurmeseCalifornia Spangled CatChartreuxColorpoint Shorthair
Cornish RexCymricCyprus catDevon RexDonskoyEgyptian MauExotic Shorthair
German RexHavana BrownHimalayanJapanese BobtailJavaneseKhao Manee
KinkalowKoratKurilian BobtailLaPermLykoiMaine CoonManxMunchkin
NebelungNeva MasqueradeNorwegian Forest CatOcicat
Oriental LonghairOriental ShorthairPersianPeterbaldPixie-bobRagdoll
RagamuffinRussian BlueScottish FoldSelkirk RexSiameseSiberian
SingapuraSokokeSnowshoeSomaliSphynxThaiTraditional Persian
TonkineseTurkish AngoraTurkish Van
Hybrid BengalChausieCheetohJungle CurlSavannahSerengeti
Wild Cats
Pantherinae Amur LeopardArabian LeopardBlack PantherClouded LeopardJaguarLeopardLionTiger
Felinae African Golden CatAfrican WildcatAndean Mountain CatAsiatic Golden CatBay Cat
Black-Footed CatBobcatCanada LynxCaracalCheetahChinese Desert CatCougar
Eurasian LynxEuropean WildcatFishing CatFlat-headed CatGeoffroy's Cat
Iberian LynxJaguarundiJungle CatLeopard CatKodkodMarbled CatMargay
OcelotOncillaPampas CatPallas CatRusty-spotted CatSand Cat
ServalSouthern TigrinaSunda Leopard Cat