Isle of Man (off the north-west coast of England)
|Cat (Felis catus)|
|List of Cat Breeds|
The Manx is a breed of cat with a naturally occurring mutation of the spine. This mutation shortens the tail, resulting in a range of tail lengths from normal to tail-less. Many Manx have a small "stub" of a tail, but Manx cats are best known as being entirely tail-less; this is the distinguishing characteristic of the breed and a cat body type genetic mutation. The Manx are said to be skilled hunters, known to take down larger prey even when they are young. They are often sought by farmers with rodent problems.
The Manx breed originated before the 1700s on the Isle of Man (hence the name), where they are common. They are called stubbin in the Manx language. Tail-less cats were common on the island as long as three hundred years ago. The tail-lessness arises from a genetic mutation that became common on the island (an example of the founder effect). Folk beliefs claim the Manx cats came from the Spanish Armada; a ship foundered on Spanish Rock on the coast of the Isle of Man. According to legend, the cats on the ship swam ashore and became an established breed. Legend has it that the cats originally went on board the Spanish ship in the Far East. The Manx tail-less gene is dominant and highly penetrant; kittens from Manx parents are generally born without any tail. Having two copies of the gene is semi-lethal and kittens are usually spontaneously aborted before birth. This means that tail-less cats can carry only one copy of the gene. Because of the danger of having two copies of the tail-less gene, breeders have to be careful about breeding two tail-less Manxes together. Problems can be avoided by breeding tail-less cats with tailed ones and this breeding practice is responsible for the decreasing occurrence of spinal problems in recent years. There are various legends that seek to explain why the Manx has no tail. In one of them, Noah closed the door of the ark when it began to rain and accidentally cut off the tail of the Manx cat who'd been playing and almost got left behind. Another legend claims that the Manx is the offspring of a cat and a rabbit, explaining why it has no tail and rather long hind legs. In addition, Manx cats move with more of a hop than a stride, like a rabbit. This legend was further reinforced by the Cabbit myth. Recent postcards on the Isle of Man depict a cartoon scene in which a cat's tail is being run over and removed by a motorbike, because motorbike racing is popular on the Island. Populations of tail-less cats also exist in a few other places in Europe. The population on the isolated Danish peninsula (former island) of Reersø in the Great Belt may be due to the arrival on the island of shipwrecked cats of Manx origin.
The hind legs of a Manx are longer than the front legs, creating a continuous arch from shoulders to rump giving the cat a rounded appearance. Ears are smaller than most cat breeds and Manx can come in any color, including Tortoise-shell, Tabby, Calico, and all solid coat colors. Heads are round in shape, and often very expressive, with cute eyes and small nose. Manx kittens are classified according to tail length: Dimple rumpy or rumpy - no tail whatsoever Riser or rumpy riser - stub of cartilage or several vertebrae under the fur, most noticeable when kitten is happy and raising its 'tail' Stumpy - partial tail, more than a 'riser' but less than 'tailed' (in rare cases kittens are born with kinked tails because of incomplete growth of the tail during development) Tailed or longy - complete or near complete tail Stubby - half tail, or short tail. Tail length is random throughout a litter. The ideal show Manx is the rumpy and the stumpy (No tails or Stubbed tails); tailed and "Stubbie" Manx do not qualify to be shown, unless shown in an AOV (Any Other Variety)Class. In the past, kittens with stumpy or full tails have been docked at birth as a preventative measure due to some partial tails being very prone to a form of arthritis that causes the cat severe pain. Some dishonest cat dealers have been known to chop off the tails of "normal" kittens and sell them as Manx. Manx cats exhibit two coat lengths. The short-haired Manx has a double coat with a thick, short under-layer and a longer, coarse outer-layer with guard hairs. The long-haired Manx, known to some cat registries as the Cymric, has a silky-textured double coat of medium length, with britches, belly and neck ruff, tufts of fur between the toes and full ear furnishings. The Cat Fanciers' Association (CFA) considers the Cymric to be a variety of Manx and judges it in the short-hair division, while The International Cat Association (TICA) judges it in the long-hair division. Short- or long-haired, all Manx have a thick double-layered coat.
"Manx Syndrome" is a colloquial name given to the condition which results when the mutant tailless gene shortens the spine too much. It can seriously damage the spinal cord and the nerves causing spina bifida as well as problems with the bowels, bladder, and digestion. Some live for only 3 years; the oldest recorded was 5 years when affected with the disease . In one study it was shown to affect about 20% of Manx cats, but almost all of those cases were rumpies, which exhibit the most extreme phenotype. Actual occurrences of this are rare in modern examples of the breed due to informed breeding practices. Most pedigreed cats are not placed until four months of age (to make sure that they are properly socialised) and this gives adequate time for any health problems to be identified. Renowned feline expert Roger Tabor has stated that "Only the fact that the Manx is a historic breed stops us being as critical of this dangerous gene as of other more recent selected abnormalities." The breed is also predisposed to rump fold intertrigo and corneal dystrophy. The Manx breed, in spite of the absence of tail, has no problems with balance, mostly because of its long legs and round features.